International Code of Oenological Practices

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II.1.2 Crushing


Operation that consists of breaking the skin of berries and crushing them to liberate the must.


a)        To ensure good diffusion of the soluble elements of the marc into the must, in the case of wines produced according to traditional maceration.

b)       To facilitate the multiplication of yeasts by bringing the juice released into contact with indigenous yeasts on the surface of grapes and on the wine making equipment.


a)        Crushing must take place immediately when grapes arrive at the winery.

b)       It is necessary to take care to avoid:

  • Crushing the seeds and stems,
  • The use of devices which increase the level of solids,
  • Excessive contact of the must with the solid parts of the grape in the vinification of white wine, except in the case of maceration on skins (**)[1].

Recommendation of OIV:


[1] ** indicate that the production conditions are being studied